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Implementing MacsBug-Compatible USB Keyboard and Mouse Drivers

Q: Under MacOS USB 1.4.x, the Apple USB Mouse and Keyboard drivers work better with MacsBug. How can I implement similar functionality in my vendor-specific Mouse and Keyboard driver?

A: MacOS USB 1.4.x implements modifications within the USB Services Library so that when MacsBug is active, the USB Interrupt Service Routine (ISR) limits the processing of data to those devices whose drivers support MacsBug. In prior versions of MacOS USB, the USB ISR continued to process incoming data requests, such that all USB devices would still function within the MacsBug context. To support MacsBug, the following conditions must be true:

  • The USB parameter block request must have the kUSBDebugAwareFlag bit set in the usbFlags field.
  • The ADBShim implemented in MacOS 9.0.4 or greater must be present.
  • The ADBShim must be actively supporting a keyboard attached to the system.

The ADBShim that ships as part of the MacOS ROM file for MacOS 9.0.4 was modified to provide MacsBug support for USB keyboards and mice. The MacOS ROM file is only present on Power Macintosh systems with USB built-in. As of the writing of this Q&A, there is no support for MacsBug for USB keyboards and mice on older Power Macintosh G3 systems.

To support MacsBug, the USB ISR must be aware that MacsBug has been entered. This is handled by the ADBShim, when it loads to support a dependent USB Keyboard. The ADBShim is also activated for a Blue&White G3 with an ADB keyboard and for keyboards on PowerBook G3 systems with USB built-in. If the ADBShim is active only to support a USB mouse, the mouse will not work within MacsBug.

Setting the kUSBDebugAwareFlag Bit

In the MacOS USB DDK 1.4.1 and greater, both the Keyboard and Mouse examples demonstrate the use of the kUSBDebugAwareFlag. The flag bit is set in the USBIntRead parameter block call. When MacsBug is entered, the USB scans each incoming request to check if the kUSBDebugAwareFlag bit is set in the usbFlags field. If so, then the usbCompletion routine is executed, which normally chains to another USBIntRead call. If the bit is not set, the USB ISR queues the request for later processing, after the user leaves MacsBug. The following is an example of setting the kUSBDebugAwareFlag bit from code modified from the keyboard sample.

    // initialize the parameter block
    InitParamBlock(pKeyboardPB->pipeRef, &pKeyboardPB->pb);

    // specify where the response buffer
    pKeyboardPB->pb.usbBuffer = (Ptr)response;

    // 8 bytes of data requested for a keyboard read
    pKeyboardPB->pb.usbReqCount = 0x08;

    // set the interfaceNumber of the keyboard
    pKeyboardPB->pb.usb.cntl.WIndex = interfaceNumber;

    // set the completion proc
    pKeyboardPB->pb.usbCompletion = (USBCompletion)KeyboardCompletionProc;

    // user sets the usbRefcon field which remains unchanged
    // across the call
    pKeyboardPB->pb.usbRefcon |= kCompletionPending;

    // Get USB Version to see if we support the
    // debug aware flag ( version > 1.4 )
    if ( pKeyboardPB->usbVersion >=  kUSBVersion14 )
        pKeyboardPB->pb.usbFlags |= kUSBDebugAwareFlag;

    // post the USBIntRead call
    myErr = USBIntRead(&pKeyboardPB->pb);

Supporting the ADBShim

When the mouse or keyboard device is attached, the ADBShim is notified and it searches for an exported TheHIDModuleDispatchTable symbol associated with the device driver. If the symbol is found, then the USBHIDInstallInterruptProcPtr field is checked to make sure that it is not nil. The ADBShim passes the driver its ISR to be used to process all incoming data. If there is no TheHIDModuleDispatchTable or if the USBHIDInstallInterruptProcPtr is nil, the ADBShim does not support the device. An example of implementing the TheHIDModuleDispatchTable, is demonstrated in the Keyboard and Mouse module driver samples which are part of the MacOS USB DDK 1.4.1.

A vendor specific keyboard or mouse driver may implement support for the kUSBDebugAwareFlag bit, but not export the TheHIDModuleDispatchTable, and still work with MacsBug. For this to happen, a keyboard that is supported by the ADBShim must be attached. For this reason, developers find that their keyboards and mice that are supported by vendor-specific drivers work within MacsBug with an Apple USB keyboard attached, but not without it.

A vendor-specific keyboard or mouse driver can implement support for the TheHIDModuleDispatchTable as well as the USBHIDInstallInterruptProcPtr and still selectively support additional functionality which their product provides. When processing each event, determine which events should be passed to the ADBShim. If the event is to be handled by your own code, be aware that the driver may be operating within the MacsBug context. Consider using a Deferred Task to execute your code, in this case.

[May 31 2000]

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