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Leopard Reference Library: Carbon
Internationalization is the process of readying software to handle different text systems and locale-specific features. Localization is the process of translating an application's text elements, and adjusting the user interface, for a specific language or region. Carbon services help developers internationalize and localize software. Carbon also includes utilities to manage locales, dates, and measurement systems in a consistent manner.

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Internationalization Programming Topics (HTML) (PDF)
Explains how to support multiple languages in software.
Guides 2009-01-06
Handling Unicode Text Editing With MLTE (HTML) (PDF)
Explains how to use Apple's multilingual text engine.
Guides 2008-10-15
Locales Programming Guide (HTML) (PDF)
Explains how to use locales to retrieve, interpret, and display localized information in Core Foundation.
Guides 2008-10-15
Strings Programming Guide for Core Foundation (HTML) (PDF)
Explains how to create, manipulate, and search strings in Core Foundation, and how strings interact with encodings and character sets.
Guides 2008-03-11
Carbon Core Release Notes (HTML)
Release Notes 2007-10-31
ATSUI Programming Guide (HTML) (PDF)
Explains how to lay out, process, and draw Unicode text.
Guides 2007-07-10
ATSUI Reference (HTML) (PDF)
Describes the C API for rendering Unicode-encoded text with advanced typographic features.
Reference 2007-06-28
Text Input Source Services Reference (HTML) (PDF)
Describes the API for operating on text input sources, such as keyboards, character palettes, and ink input.
Reference 2007-06-07
Multilingual Text Engine Reference (HTML) (PDF)
Describes the C API for supporting Unicode text editing.
Reference 2007-02-19
How can I determine the order of the languages set by the user in the Language tab of the International preference pane? (HTML)
QA1391: Retrieving the order of the languages set by the International preference pane in Cocoa, Carbon, and Terminal.
Technical Q&As 2006-12-19
Date, Time, and Measurement Utilities Reference (HTML) (PDF)
Describes the C API for manipulating the locale-specific data of the battery-operated clock.
Reference 2006-09-29
Unicode Utilities Reference (HTML) (PDF)
Describes the C API that allows applications and input methods to operate on Unicode text.
Reference 2006-01-10
Multilingual Text Engine Frequently Asked Questions (HTML) (日本語 HTML)
TN2026: A list of frequently asked questions for the Multilingual Text Engine (MLTE).
Technical Notes 2005-09-12
Dates and Times Programming Guide for Core Foundation (HTML) (PDF)
Explains how to manage Core Foundation dates and times.
Guides 2005-08-11
Programming With the Text Encoding Conversion Manager (HTML) (PDF)
Explains character encodings, Unicode conversion, and custom converter plug-ins. Lists encoding variants.
Guides 2005-07-07
Supporting Unicode Input (HTML) (PDF)
Introduces international text in Mac OS X and lists the tasks an application needs to perform.
Guides 2005-07-07
Text Encoding Conversion Manager Reference (HTML) (PDF)
Describes the C API for transferring text across other platforms or over the Internet.
Reference 2005-07-07
MoreIsBetter (HTML) (DMG) (ZIP)
Library providing indispensable wrapers and workarounds for many areas of Mac OS programming.
Sample Code 2003-10-27
Programming With the Language Analysis Manager (HTML) (PDF)
Explains how morpholgical analysis is performed by the system.
Guides 2003-05-01
Using the Japanese Analysis Engine and Access Method (HTML) (PDF)
Describes dictionary access and the environments used by the Japanese Analysis Engine.
Guides 2003-05-01
Language Analysis Manager Reference (HTML) (PDF)
Describes the Carbon shared library that performs morphological analysis for Japanese text.
Reference 2003-04-01
Converting to Precomposed Unicode (HTML) (日本語 HTML)
QA1235: Describes how to convert a string to precomposed Unicode.
Technical Q&As 2003-02-07
ATSUICurveAccessDemo (HTML) (DMG) (ZIP)
Demonstrates low-level ATSUI APIs which allow access to raw glyph curve data.
Sample Code 2003-01-14
Understanding Text Input and the Text Services Manager in Carbon (HTML) (PDF)
Discusses keyboard input, including Unicode, and explains how events are routed and handled.
Guides 2002-12-11
Keyboard Layout Services Reference (HTML) (PDF)
Describes the C API for managing key-to-character mappings used to support various languages.
Reference 2002-11-18
Locale Utilities Reference (HTML) (PDF)
Describes the C API for supporting conventions of a specific language or region.
Reference 2002-01-24