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Leopard Reference Library
Carbon is a set of C APIs offering developers an advanced user interface tool kit, event handling, the Quartz 2D graphics library, and multiprocessing support. Developers have access to other C and C++ APIs, including the OpenGL drawing system and the Mach microkernel.

A guided introduction and learning path for developers new to Carbon.   Essential information for developers using procedural C.   C API references organized by framework.
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CFAttributedString Reference (HTML) (PDF)
Describes an immutable character string and its associated attributes.
Data Management, Text & Fonts Reference 2009-05-06
CFMutableAttributedString Reference (HTML) (PDF)
Describes a mutable character string and associated set of attributes.
Data Management, Text & Fonts Reference 2009-05-06
CFNetwork Programming Guide (HTML) (PDF)
Explains how to use Core Foundation networking functions to work with low-level BSD sockets.
Security Guides 2009-05-06
Image Unit Tutorial (HTML) (PDF)
Describes how to write image processing kernels and package them for distribution.
Graphics & Imaging Guides 2009-05-06
Search Kit Reference (HTML) (PDF)
Describes the interface for supporting user searches of textual content.
Data Management, Text & Fonts, User Experience Reference 2009-05-06
Speech Synthesis Manager Reference (HTML) (PDF)
Describes the C API for converting text into synthesized speech.
Accessibility, User Experience Reference 2009-04-08
QTCarbonShell (HTML) (DMG) (ZIP)
A skeleton of a modern Carbon QuickTime application demonstrating how to incorporate QuickTime support into a Carbon application.
QuickTime Sample Code 2009-03-19
QTMetaData (HTML) (DMG) (ZIP)
Demonstrates the QuickTime 7 MetaData APIs in a Carbon application.
QuickTime Sample Code 2009-03-16
Keychain Services Programming Guide (HTML) (PDF)
This document explains how to use Keychain Services to store and retrieve passwords.
Security Guides 2009-03-12
Dock Tile Programming Guide (HTML) (PDF)
Explains how to provide an icon and contextual menu in Carbon applications.
User Experience Guides 2009-03-04
PMPrinterTest (HTML) (DMG) (ZIP)
Demonstrates using the PMPrinter APIs to obtain information about the connected printers.
Printing Sample Code 2009-02-13
Mac OS X ABI Function Call Guide (HTML) (PDF)
Describes the function-calling conventions used in the architectures supported by Mac OS X.
Intel-Based Macs Guides 2009-02-04
Mac OS X ABI Mach-O File Format Reference (HTML) (PDF)
Describes the data structures that make up the Mach-O file format.
Runtime Architecture Reference 2009-02-04
Universal Binary Programming Guidelines, Second Edition (HTML) (PDF)
Conceptual information and tips for writing code that runs on PowerPC-based and Intel-based Macintosh computers.
Intel-Based Macs, Porting Guides 2009-02-04
Xcode Design Tools for Class Modeling (HTML) (PDF)
Describes the Xcode Design Tools for Class Modeling.
Design Guidelines, Tools Guides 2009-02-04
QuickTime Audio - Easy Frequency Level Metering with MovieAudio APIs (HTML)
QA1459: Describes how to perform frequency band level metering using MovieAudio metering APIs.
QuickTime Technical Q&As 2009-01-29
Quartz Window Services Reference (HTML)
Describes the interface for capturing the contents of a window.
Graphics & Imaging Reference 2009-01-15
vDSP Single-Vector Operations Reference (HTML) (PDF)
This document describes the C API for performing common routines on a single vector in vDSP.
Performance Reference 2009-01-07
Authorization Services Programming Guide (HTML) (PDF)
Explains how to add fine-grained control of privileged operations in an application.
Security Guides 2009-01-06
Internationalization Programming Topics (HTML) (PDF)
Explains how to support multiple languages in software.
Internationalization Guides 2009-01-06
Resource Programming Guide (HTML) (PDF)
Explains how to work with nib and bundle resources in Mac OS X applications.
Resource Management Guides 2009-01-06
vDSP Correlation, Convolution, and Filtering Reference (HTML) (PDF)
Describes an interface for performing correlation, convolution, and filtering operations on real or complex signals.
Performance Reference 2009-01-06
vDSP Matrix Operations Reference (HTML) (PDF)
Describes an interface for matrix arithmetic operations.
Performance Reference 2009-01-06
vDSP One-Dimensional Fast Fourier Transforms Reference (HTML) (PDF)
Describes an interface for performing one-dimensional fast Fourier transforms on an input signal.
Performance Reference 2009-01-06
vDSP Vector-To-Scalar Operations Reference (HTML) (PDF)
Describes functions that receive a vector as input and compute scalars as output.
Performance Reference 2009-01-06
vDSP Vector-to-Vector Arithmetic Operations Reference (HTML) (PDF)
Describes functions that receive a vector as input and return a vector as output.
Performance Reference 2009-01-06
Web Services Core Framework Reference (HTML)
Describes the client-side APIs for accessing web services.
Internet & Web Reference 2009-01-06
Web Services Core Programming Guide (HTML) (PDF)
Explains how to use the new Web Services client-side frameworks available in Mac OS X.
Internet & Web, Networking Guides 2009-01-06
Xcode Overview (HTML) (PDF)
Describes the Xcode IDE and its major components, and provides and overview of the development process.
Tools Guides 2009-01-06
Xcode Project Management Guide (HTML) (PDF)
Provides practical descriptions of the major development tasks developers perform with Xcode.
Tools Guides 2009-01-06
Xcode Workspace Guide (HTML) (PDF)
Provides an overview of the Xcode workspace, and shows how to use its components and features.
Tools Guides 2009-01-06
Certificate, Key, and Trust Services Programming Guide (HTML) (PDF)
Shows how to evaluate trust for a certificate and recover from a trust failure.
Security Guides 2008-11-19
Certificate, Key, and Trust Services Reference (HTML) (PDF)
Describes services to read and evaluate certificates and to use cryptographic keys.
Security Reference 2008-11-19
Code Signing Guide (HTML) (PDF)
Explains how you can sign your code and why you should.
Security Guides 2008-11-19
Interface Builder User Guide (HTML) (PDF)
Conceptual information and tasks explaining how to use the Interface Builder application to design user interfaces.
Tools Guides 2008-11-19
Keychain Services Reference (HTML) (PDF)
Describes the Keychain Services API, used to create, find, modify, and delete keychain items.
Security Reference 2008-11-19
Quartz Display Services Reference (HTML) (PDF)
Describes the interface for configuring and controlling display hardware.
Graphics & Imaging Reference 2008-11-19
vDSP Two-Dimensional Fast Fourier Transforms Reference (HTML) (PDF)
Improved function discussions and corrections.
Performance Reference 2008-11-19
Animation Overview (HTML) (PDF)
Describes the animation facilities provided by Mac OS X.
Games, Graphics & Imaging Guides 2008-10-15
CTFontDescriptor Reference (HTML) (PDF)
Describes a dictionary that fully specifies a font.
Text & Fonts Reference 2008-10-15
Handling Unicode Text Editing With MLTE (HTML) (PDF)
Explains how to use Apple's multilingual text engine.
Internationalization Guides 2008-10-15
Locales Programming Guide (HTML) (PDF)
Explains how to use locales to retrieve, interpret, and display localized information in Core Foundation.
Internationalization Guides 2008-10-15
Memory Management Programming Guide for Core Foundation (HTML) (PDF)
Explains how to allocate and deallocate objects in Core Foundation.
Core Foundation, Resource Management Guides 2008-10-15
Quartz Composer Programming Guide (HTML) (PDF)
Describes how to used the framework to load, play, and control compositions.
Graphics & Imaging Guides 2008-10-15
Security Overview (HTML) (PDF)
An introduction to computer security concepts and the security APIs in Mac OS X and iPhone OS.
Security Guides 2008-10-15
WebKit C Reference (HTML) (PDF)
Describes the C API for displaying web content in windows.
Internet & Web, User Experience Reference 2008-10-15
WebKit Objective-C Programming Guide (HTML) (PDF)
Explains how to use the WebKit to embed web content in both Cocoa and Carbon applications.
Internet & Web, User Experience Guides 2008-10-15
Xcode Quick Tour for Mac OS X (HTML) (PDF)
Provides a hands-on introduction to Xcode, Apple's comprehensive suite of software development tools for Mac OS X.
Tools Guides 2008-10-15
XML Programming Topics for Core Foundation (HTML) (PDF)
Explains how to parse XML documents into structured objects.
Core Foundation, Data Management, Internet & Web Guides 2008-10-15
FSDeleteObject fails with fBsyErr, sometimes (HTML)
QA1497: Why Spotlight indexing can cause file deletion to fail, and what to do about it.
File Management Technical Q&As 2008-09-24
Programmatically causing restart, shutdown and/or logout (HTML) (日本語 HTML)
QA1134: Describes how to programmatically cause restart, shutdown, sleep or logout.
Events & Other Input, Process Management, Resource Management Technical Q&As 2008-09-24
Disabling Processor Cores on a Multi-Core System (HTML) (日本語 HTML)
QA1141: Describes how to disable processor cores on a multi-core system for testing purposes.
Performance Technical Q&As 2008-09-16
Observing Process Lifetimes Without Polling (HTML)
TN2050: Shows a variety of methods to observe process lifetimes without polling.
Process Management Technical Notes 2008-09-10
Expanding Tilde-based paths (HTML)
QA1549: Demonstrates how to resolve tilde-based relevant paths.
File Management Technical Q&As 2008-09-08
Getting the pixel data from a CGImage object (HTML)
QA1509: Describes how to access the pixel data of a CGImage object
Games, Graphics & Imaging Technical Q&As 2008-08-27
Gathering all PostScript Printer Descriptions (PPDs) (HTML)
QA1529: Describes a work around for an issue in PMCopyAvailablePPDs on Mac OS X 10.4 and below
Printing Technical Q&As 2008-08-08
Registering and unregistering for sleep and wake notifications (HTML)
QA1340: Explains how applications can register and unregister for sleep and wake notifications on Mac OS X.
Resource Management Technical Q&As 2008-08-08
Requirements for Quartz GL (HTML)
QA1536: Describes the requirements for enabling Quartz GL.
Games, Graphics & Imaging, Performance, User Experience Technical Q&As 2008-08-08
Using QTPixelBufferContextCreate with NewMovieFromProperties (HTML)
QA1443: Discusses using a QuickTime pixel buffer visual context and NewMovieFromProperties to output frames to pixel buffers.
QuickTime Technical Q&As 2008-08-08
Mac OS X Code Signing In Depth (HTML)
TN2206: Intermediate to expert level overview of code signing that details specific options and gotchas
Security Technical Notes 2008-08-06
CFNetwork Reference Collection (HTML) (PDF)
Describes the C APIs for performing a variety network tasks.
Networking Reference 2008-07-15
File System Overview (HTML) (PDF)
Conceptual information and guidelines describing the structure and usage of the Mac OS X file system.
File Management Guides 2008-07-11
Audio File Services Reference (HTML) (PDF)
Describes a C programming interface for reading and writing audio files.
Audio, File Management Reference 2008-07-08
Audio Queue Services Reference (HTML) (PDF)
Describes a high-level programming interface for recording and playing back audio data.
Audio Reference 2008-07-08
Runtime Configuration Guidelines (HTML) (PDF)
Conceptual and reference information for dynamically configuring your software.
Design Guidelines Guides 2008-07-08
Debugging with GDB (HTML)
Open-source document that explains how to use GDB to debug programs.
Tools Guides 2008-06-19
Apple Human Interface Guidelines (HTML) (PDF)
Introduces the Mac OS X user experience and explains how to design an application for Aqua.
Design Guidelines, User Experience Guides 2008-06-09
Core Image Kernel Language Reference (HTML) (PDF)
Describes the symbols for writing image-processing kernels.
Graphics & Imaging Reference 2008-06-09
Core Image Programming Guide (HTML) (PDF)
Provides an overview and explains how to use and create image filters and image units.
Graphics & Imaging Guides 2008-06-09
Core Text Programming Guide (HTML) (PDF)
Explains how to do text layout and font-related operations using the Core Text programming interfaces.
Text & Fonts Guides 2008-06-09
SpotlightFortunes (HTML) (DMG) (ZIP)
Demonstrates how to provision a Spotlight importer plug-in for a custom UTI, and how to use a NSMetadataQuery with bindings to display live query results in a table view.
File Management Sample Code 2008-06-06
Getting a Packet Trace (HTML) (日本語 HTML)
QA1176: Lists tools available for looking at the network packets on the wire.
Internet & Web, Networking Technical Q&As 2008-06-03
Secure Coding Guide (HTML) (PDF)
Describes techniques to use and factors to consider to make your code more secure from attack.
Security Guides 2008-05-23
AlbumToSlideshow (HTML) (DMG) (ZIP)
Demonstrates using CF and NSXML to create Final Cut Pro XML.
Core Foundation Sample Code 2008-05-15
WhackedTV (HTML) (DMG) (ZIP)
A Cocoa version of the venerable HackTV sample code, demonstrating usage of the Sequence Grabber API's
QuickTime Sample Code 2008-05-09
HID Config Save (HTML) (DMG) (ZIP)
Human Interface Device Manager Configuration sample
Games Sample Code 2008-05-07
SampleScannerApp (HTML) (DMG) (ZIP)
This project implements a simple client accessing an ICA scanning device.
Graphics & Imaging Sample Code 2008-05-07
Xcode Unit Testing Guide (HTML) (PDF)
Explains how to incorporate test cases to validate individual units of source code.
Design Guidelines Guides 2008-05-02
CIColorTracking (HTML) (DMG) (ZIP)
An Objective-C applicaton that implements a GPU-based technique to find the location of a uniquely colored object in a scene
Graphics & Imaging Sample Code 2008-04-24
Scripting Additions for Mac OS X (HTML) (日本語 HTML)
TN1164: Talks about how to create AppleScript scripting additions (OSAX) for Mac OS X.
Interapplication Communication Technical Notes 2008-04-24
Determining console user login status (HTML)
QA1133: How to determine whether a user is logged in on the console, and be notified of changes.
Process Management Technical Q&As 2008-04-14
2D Graphics Release Notes for Mac OS X v10.5 (HTML)
Describes the changes and issues related to Core Image and Quartz 2D in Mac OS X v10.5.
Graphics & Imaging Release Notes 2008-04-08
CPlusTest Reference (HTML)
Describes the CPlusTest framework, which provides an API for creating unit tests for C and C++ code.
Tools Reference 2008-04-08
Data Browser Reference (HTML) (PDF)
Describes the C API used to display data in list or column views similar to the Finder.
Human Interface Toolbox, User Experience Reference 2008-04-08
Disc Recording Framework Reference (HTML)
Describes the Objective-C and C API for burning audio and data CDs and DVDs.
Audio, File Management Reference 2008-04-08
Disc Recording UI Framework Reference (HTML)
Describes the Objective-C and C API for presenting a user interface when burning audio and data CDs and DVDs.
Audio, File Management, User Experience Reference 2008-04-08
JavaScriptCore Framework Reference (HTML)
Describes the API for evaluating JavaScript programs from within a C-based program
Internet & Web Reference 2008-04-08
Uniform Type Identifiers Overview (HTML) (PDF)
Describes uniform type identifiers and how to use them.
Data Management, File Management, Interapplication Communication Guides 2008-04-08
Bonjour Printer Subtype for HTTP (HTML)
QA1555: Describes how printer vendors can register their bonjour service such that Safari can see them.
Networking Technical Q&As 2008-03-25
Security Framework Reference (HTML) (PDF)
Describes the API for protecting information.
Security Reference 2008-03-12
Accessibility Overview (HTML) (PDF)
Explains how to use the accessibility features built into Mac OS X.
Accessibility Guides 2008-03-11
AppleScript Language Guide (HTML) (PDF)
Defines the AppleScript scripting language. Includes many brief sample scripts.
Interapplication Communication, Scripting & Automation Guides 2008-03-11
High Level Toolbox Release Notes (10.5.2) (HTML)
Describes HIToolbox enhancements for Mac OS X v10.5.2.
Human Interface Toolbox Release Notes 2008-03-11
How to work around HIMovieViewCreate failing (HTML)
QA1417: Describes how to work around HIMovieViewCreate failing to initialize the view in QuickTime 7
QuickTime Technical Q&As 2008-03-11
Strings Programming Guide for Core Foundation (HTML) (PDF)
Explains how to create, manipulate, and search strings in Core Foundation, and how strings interact with encodings and character sets.
Core Foundation, Data Management, Internationalization, Text & Fonts Guides 2008-03-11
Suppressing the "unexpectedly quit" alert (HTML)
QA1288: Describes how to suppress the "unexpectedly quit" alert.
User Experience Technical Q&As 2008-03-11
CarbonCocoaTempConverter (HTML) (DMG) (ZIP)
Demonstrates how to integrate Carbon and Cocoa user interfaces in the same Cocoa application.
Events & Other Input Sample Code 2008-03-10
FSMegaInfo (HTML) (DMG) (ZIP)
Prints information about various file system objects; helpful when debugging VFS plug-ins.
File Management Sample Code 2008-02-25
Customizing Process Stack Size (HTML)
QA1419: Describes methods for setting the stack size of a process and/or thread.
Process Management, Resource Management Technical Q&As 2008-02-20
Multiprocessing Services Reference (HTML) (PDF)
Describes the C API for creating preemptively scheduled tasks in Carbon applications.
Performance, Process Management Reference 2008-02-08